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ISI - INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL INSTITUTE
The ISI glossary of statistical terms in a number of languages some of which use special characters.
Reactome is a curated database of biological processes in humans. It covers biological pathways ranging from the basic processes of metabolism to high-level processes such as hormonal signalling. While Reactome is targeted at human pathways, it also includes many individual biochemical reactions from non-human systems such as rat, mouse, fugu fish and zebra fish. This makes the database relevant to the large number of researchers who work on model organisms. All the information in Reactome is backed up by its provenance: either a literature citation or an electronic inference based on sequence similarity. Our ontology ensures that the various events are linked in an appropriate spatial and temporal context.
The basic information in Reactome is provided by bench biologists who are experts in that domain of biology. The information is then managed and edited by the Reactome staff at CSHL and the EBI, and entered into a relational database. They are then reviewed by other biological researchers for consistency and accuracy. Following peer-review, the information is published to the web.
Reactome supersedes an earlier project called The Genome Knowledgebase and incorporates all the information previously available in its predecessor. Reactome sports a radically redesigned user interface in which the entire set of human pathways known to the database are represented as a series of constellations in a "starry sky." The starry sky can be used to navigate through the universe of human reactions and is invaluable to visualize connections between pathways, some of which will be surprising to biologists who are not familiar with pathways outside their domain of research.
Over the past several years, the journal Nucleic Acids Research has documented the availability and features of the growing number of molecular biology databases, an exercise that is becoming increasingly important given the astonishing growth of biological information. To access free on-line list of databases, see http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/vol3...ppl_1/index.dtl. The website contains a list of databases and comprehensive information about them.
» Web-based, multi-language encyclopediaWikipedia is a Web-based, multi-language, free-content encyclopedia written collaboratively by volunteers and sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. It has editions in about 200 different languages (about 100 of which are active) and contains entries both on traditional encyclopedic topics and on almanac, gazetteer, and current events topics. Its purpose is to create and distribute a free international encyclopedia in as many languages as possible. Wikipedia is one of the most popular reference sites on the web, receiving around 60 million hits per day.
Wikipedia contains approximately 1.6 million articles. More than 700,000 of these are in English, more than 250,000 in German, more than 150,000 in French and more than 100,000 in Japanese. It began as a complement to the expert-written Nupedia on January 15, 2001. Having steadily risen in popularity, it has spawned several sister projects, such as Wiktionary, Wikibooks, and Wikinews. It is edited by volunteers in wiki fashion, meaning articles are subject to change by nearly anyone. Wikipedia's volunteers uphold a policy of "neutral point of view" whereby views presented by notable persons or literature are summarized without an attempt to determine an objective truth. Because of its open nature, vandalism and inaccuracy are problems in Wikipedia.
The status of Wikipedia as a reference work has been controversial, and it has been both praised for its free distribution, free editing and wide range of topics and criticized for alleged systemic biases, preference of consensus to credentials, deficiencies in some topics, and lack of accountability and authority when compared with traditional encyclopedias. Its articles have been cited by the mass media and academia and are available under the GNU Free Documentation License. Its German language edition has been distributed on compact discs, and many of its other editions are mirrored or have been forked by websites.
» bioinformatics and systems biologyThe Center for Biological Sequence Analysis at the Technical University of Denmark was formed in 1993, and conducts basic research in the field of bioinformatics and systems biology. The group of +45 scientists, working in seven specialist research groups, has a highly multi-disciplinary profile (molecular biologists, biochemists, medical doctors, physicists and computer scientists) with a ratio of 2:1 of bio-to-nonbio backgrounds. CBS represents one of the large bioinformatics groups in academia in Europe.
Bioinformatics is the term used to refer to the combination of methods in biology, computation, and information management, which are necessary to advance research relating to all aspects of living systems - from individual molecules, cells, and organs to entire organisms.
In the last decade, the Center for Biological Sequence Analysis has produced a large number of computational methods, which are offered to others via WWW servers.
» promotes bioscience in EuropeThe European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) promotes bioscience in Europe through programmes and activities. Established in 1964, the EMBO membership includes some of the leading researchers in Europe and represents a highly dynamic cross-section of the life sciences community. The founders of EMBO showed an incredible vision when they established the organisation. They were true motors of change, even revolutionaries, who raised biological research to a European level while adhering to the highest standards of scientific excellence. Keeping faith with their vision, their principles and standards are a guide to our activities today.