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Участник оффлайн! sudutdesa




 прочитанное сообщение Сообщение на английском  30.05.2021 10:46     Сообщение для модератора         Личное письмо  Отправить e-mail
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The area of ​​the oceans compared to the land area in the world reaches approximately 70 to 30, so that it becomes a challenge for countries in the world that have marine interests in advancing their maritime affairs. Along with the development of the strategic environment, the role of the sea becomes significant and dominant in ushering the progress of a country. Alfred Thayer Mahan, a High Officer of the United States Navy, in his book " The Influence of Sea Power upon History " proposes the theory that sea ​​power is the most important element for the progress and success of a country, which if these marine powers are empowered, it will improve the welfare and security of a country. Conversely, if these sea powers are neglected, it will result in losses for a country or even collapse the country. Geographically, Indonesia is an archipelago with two thirds of the ocean area larger than land. This can be seen from the existence of coastlines on almost every island in Indonesia (± 81,000 km) which makes Indonesia rank second after Canada as a country that has the longest coastline in the world. This strength is a great potential for advancing the Indonesian economy. Data from the Food and Agriculture Organization in 2012, Indonesia is currently ranked the third largest in the world in fishery production, behind China and India. In addition, Indonesian waters hold 70 percent of the potential for oil because there are approximately 40 oil basins in Indonesian waters. From this figure, only about 10 percent has currently been explored and utilized. This shows that the Indonesian people have not felt the significant role of their maritime potential, which is marked by the not yet fully managed Indonesian maritime potential. With the diversity of Indonesia's maritime potential, including the marine biotechnology industry, deep ocean water , marine tourism, marine energy, marine minerals, shipping, defense, and the maritime industry, can actually make a major contribution to the welfare and prosperity of the Indonesian people. Article 33 paragraph (3) of the 1945 Constitution states that the land and water and natural resources contained therein are controlled by the state and used for the prosperity of the people. Even so, it cannot be denied that many natural resources, especially the sea in Indonesia, are still controlled by foreign parties, and not a few are illegal and selfish. In this case, the role of the Government ( government will ) is needed to be able to maintain and maintain and cultivate maritime wealth and potential in Indonesia. To process these marine natural resources, infrastructure improvements, human resource enhancement, technology modernization and sustainable funding in the state budget are needed so that they can provide economic benefits for the state and also for the community. As with other theories put forward by Alfred Thayer Mahan regarding the requirements that must be met to build a maritime power, namely geographic position and conditions, area size, number and character of the population, and most importantly the character of the government. In addition to improvements and special attention given to technology to manage natural resources in Indonesia's seas, it is also necessary to develop ports and sea transportation to encourage Indonesian maritime activities to become more modern and easy to use by the public. It is also hoped that the role of the private sector will support the course of marine empowerment, so that these programs do not only depend on APBN funds. From the defense side, control of the sea means being able to guarantee the use of the sea for the national interest and preventing opponents from using our marine potential. The government needs to immediately complete the acceleration of maritime boundaries in order to provide certainty over the country's territorial borders and be able to strengthen bilateral relations between bordering countries, as well as encourage cooperation between the two bordering countries in various fields including in the management of border areas, for example related to shipping, maritime affairs and fishery. In addition, with the certainty of maritime boundaries, the sovereignty of a country can be maintained and law enforcement in the territorial waters. As is well known, Indonesia has maritime borders with 10 (ten) countries, namely India (Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)), Thailand (Continental Shelf, EEZ), Malaysia (Regional Sea, EEZ, Continental Shelf), Singapore ( Territorial Sea), Vietnam (Continental Shelf, EEZ), Philippines (EEZ, Continental Shelf), Palau (EEZ, Continental Shelf), Papua New Guinea (EEZ, Continental Shelf), Timor Leste (Territorial Sea, Continental Shelf, EEZ) and Australia (EEZ, Continental Shelf). Of these borders, Indonesia has completed part of the maritime boundary determination with India (Continental Shelf), Thailand (Continental Shelf), Malaysia (part of the Territorial Sea, the Continental Shelf), Singapore (part of the Territorial Sea), Various other efforts need to be carried out towards Indonesia as the world's maritime axis, including improving the Draft Law on Reserves and Supporting Components, harmonizing the maritime education and training system, controlling the capacity of the defense industry, especially the maritime industry, modernizing fishing fleets, strengthening people's shipping fleets and national shipping, consolidating the management of marine use through spatial planning for marine areas, increasing maritime research and development, and diversifying renewable energy sources in the sea. The Urgency of Establishing the Ministry of Maritime Affairs At the DPR RI Plenary Session on 29 September 2014, the Maritime Affairs Bill was passed into the Maritime Law. This is a step forward for the Indonesian nation as well as marking the start of Indonesia's awakening as a maritime nation which is currently aspiring to become a Maritime State. The Maritime Law will become the legal umbrella for regulating the use of Indonesian seas in a comprehensive and integrated manner. In line with this, President-elect Joko Widodo, who has just been officially inaugurated as President of the Republic of Indonesia, has focused on the importance of Indonesia's Maritime role with a vision of making Indonesia the world's maritime axis. This is a strategic policy, considering that Indonesia is a maritime country surrounded by oceans. The entire world shipping channel will pass through the Indonesian oceans as a strategic route so that Indonesia should be able to use it as a diplomatic approach in making Indonesia the world's maritime axis. To realize Indonesia as a world maritime axis, there was an idea to form a maritime ministry launched by President Joko Widodo. There are two types of discourse that have emerged related to the idea of ​​forming a maritime ministry, namely the formation of the Maritime Ministry as one of the Ministries under Jokowi's Elected Presidential Cabinet, and the formation of the Maritime Coordinating Ministry which oversees ministries related to maritime matters to focus the cabinet on Indonesia's development as the axis. maritime world. The complexity of the problem and the many aspects that must be addressed in maritime-based development demands effective cross-sectoral policies. Currently, marine management in Indonesia involves many institutions, namely the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Trade, Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environment, Indonesian Navy and Police. . With so many institutions involved in the sea, it can actually be an opportunity as well as an obstacle in maritime development. It becomes an opportunity if all maritime stakeholders can synergize and become an obstacle if the opposite happens.

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